Terminology

Formative Pruning
Contributes significantly to the ultimate shape and size of a tree and may help to avoid the need for more drastic surgery at a later date. This practice is carried out at the trees young age and determines whether it will be feathered or clear stemmed, whether it will have a central leader or be branch headed, and whether the tree will be single or multi-stemmed.

Crown Lifting
This practice includes the removal of the lower branches in order to achieve clearance from the ground for footpaths, roads and buildings.

Crown Thinning
Selected branches are removed to increase light penetration and the movement of air through the crown of the tree. It leaves the overall shape of the tree unchanged and is defined in terms of a percentage (normally between 10% and 30%).

Deadwooding
This involves the removal of dead branches within the canopy of the tree.

Ivy Band
Removal of a band of Ivy from around the trunk’s circumference.

Pollarding
The initial removal of the top of a young tree at a prescribed height to encourage multistem brancing from that point, traditionally for fodder, firewood or poles. Once started, it should be repeated on a cyclical basis always retaining the initial pollard point.

Felling
Removal of a tree via a direct fell or aerial dismantling technique.

Stump Grinding
The removal of a stump and major roots of a felled tree by use of a mechanical stump grinder with grinding teeth.

Crown Reduction
Reduction in height and/or spread of the crown (the foliage bearing portions) of a tree

TPO and Conservation Area
http://www.trees.org.uk/tree-care-advice/Tree-protections-brief-guidance